This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literature review was conducted and summarized into three sections: pedestrian distraction, driver distraction, and pedestrian-vehicle interactions. Within each section, the findings were further divided into several subsections based on the study methodologies, such as naturalistic observations, simulation, laboratory, or crash database analysis. It was discovered that a very limited number of studies have investigated the effect of electronic device use by pedestrians and drivers on pedestrian safety. Even fewer naturalistic observation studies have been performed. Furthermore, most previous studies focus primarily on cell phone use, but the discussion regarding other types of electronic devices is missing. In conclusion, the review illustrates that there is a need to conduct naturalistic observations of the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian distraction and safety.